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Từ điển Việt Anh (Vietnamese English Dictionary)
Phong Trào Yêu Nước

Phong Trào Yêu Nước signifies " Patriotic movements".
Resistance war against Nam Hán Dynasty (938): In 938, from Châu ái (Thanh Hoá), Ngô Quyền led his army to the North to punish the traitor Kiều Công Tiễn who would seek reinforcements from Nam Hán Dynasty In late 938, the king of Nam Hán Dynasty ordered his son Hoằng Thao to command the navy for an attack on our country while stationing personally the rescue troops in Kwangtung (China). Ngô Quyền took Đại La Citadel, killed Kiều Công Tiễn and made preparations for the oncoming resistance war. The Nam Hán troops were defeated and Hoằng Thao was killed in action on Bạch Đằng river. The king of Nam Hán Dynasty cancelled marching orders and gave up his aggression intention. The resistance war against Nam Hán brought an end to more than 1,000 years of Chinese domination.
Anti-Tống resistance wars: After King Đinh Tiên Hoàng had been murdered, his son was too young (6 years old) when succeeding him. On this occasion, the Tống Chinese dynasty launched a large-scale aggression on Đại Cồ Việt (future Vietnam). Proclaimed king, Lê Hoàn (future Lê Đại Hành) hastened to prepare for an anti-Tống resistance war. In early 981, the Tống navy and infantry rushed overwhelmingly into Đại Cồ Việt. The enemy navy was beaten to pieces on Bạch Đằng River The enemy infantry was stopped short in Lạng Sơn and strictly pursued Their commander-in-chief Hầu Nhân Bảo was killed in action. The Tống dynasty resigned itself to cancel marching orders. Aware of Tống Dynasty's aggression intention, Lý Thường Kiệt took the initiative to attack it first for a self-defence. In October 1075, Lý Thường Kiệt commanded the navy to occupy the Khâm Chau, Liêm Chau estuaries and to besiege Ung Châu Citadel while destroying its food warehouses Then he hastened to come home to set up the defence line on the Cầu river for an oncoming resistance war. In late 1075, the Tống troops rushed into Vietnam with the determination of occupying Thăng Long, but after two attacks, were stopped short at the aforesaid defence line and gradually worn out. In addition, the Tống navy was stopped short at sea In early 1077, Lý Thường Kiệt switched to a strategic counter-offensive. The Tống army resigned itself to "make peace", then went home in March 1077. The Tống dynasty's aggression intention was crushed since.
Anti-Mongol resistance wars (13th century): In 1258, trying in vain to entice Nhà Trần (Trần Dynasty) into surrender, the Mongol dynasty ordered its 30,000 soldiers to invade our country. Trần Thủ Độ, Trần Quốc Tuấn (Trần Hưng Đạo) and our king withdrew out of Thăng Long, then all of a sudden made a counter-offensive. The enemy ran back to China in an utterly agitated state. In 1285, the crown prince Thoát Hoan (Togan) led 500,000 soldiers to attack Vietnam. The Trần troops withdrew temporarily to make a guerilla war before launching a general counter-offensive. The invaders ran helter skelter, and Thoát Hoan escaped by creeping into a bronze pipe. In 1287, the Mongol dynasty mobilized 500,000 soldiers (strengthened with navy and food supply fleet) for the third invasion on Vietnam. They were defeated again on Bạch Đằng River (1288) by the Trần troops under the command of Trần Quốc Tuấn (Trần Hưng Đạo).
Anti-Ming resistance war: Under the pretext of overthrowing Hồ Dynasty to restore Nhà Trần (Trần Dynasty), two hundred thousand Ming aggressors rushed into our country in 1406. To prepare for an anti-aggression war, Hồ Dynasty had set up a 400-kilometre long defence line from Tản Viên Mountain to Nam Hà (Hà Bắc). But the resistance was unsuccessful. On January 20th 1407, the Ming invaders mastered Đa Bang (present-day Hà Tây) - key position on that defence line - and flooded into Thăng Long on January 22nd 1407. Consequently, the Hồ army resigned itself to come back to Thanh Hoá. In June 1407, Hồ Quý Ly and his trusted courtiers were captured and taken to China. Our country fell again to the foreign domination after nearly five centuries of independence.* Lam Sơn Insurrection (1418-1428): In 1406, under the pretext of overthrowing Hồ Dynasty to restore Nhà Trần (Trần Dynasty), Ming Dynasty invaded our country. In 1418, in Lam Sơn forests (Thanh Hoá), Lê Lợi (future Lê Thái Tổ) launched a 10-year insurrection with the wholehearted help of Nguyễn Trãi. Between 1418 and 1423, the guerilla war endured many disadvantages due to the enemy blockade. Between 423 and 1424, the insurgents made negotiations to keep their strength intact. Between 1424 and 1425, they were on the offensive by liberating Nghệ An, Thanh Hoá, Tân Bình (Quảng Bình), Thuận Hoá. Between 1425 and 1428, they launched the general offensive throughout the country. Resounding victories were Tốt Động-Chúc Động, Chi Lăng-Xương Giang. On December 16th 1427, at Đông Quan (Hà Nội), Vương Thông declared to withdraw his Ming troops. In January 1428, all the Ming invaders left Vietnam.
Anti-Manchurian resistance war (1788-1789): From the fact Lê Chiêu Thống had sought reinforcements from China, the Manchurian dynasty ordered Tôn Sĩ Nghị and 200,000 soldiers to invade Vietnam. By Ngô Thì Nhậm 's plan, the Tây Sơn troops left Bắc Hà to return to Tam Điệp (Ninh Bình) and Biên Sơn (Thanh Hoá). Just after receiving this information (Dec.21st 1788), Nguyễn Huệ proclaimed himself emperor Quang Trung and gave marching orders without any delay. Within 35 days, Nguyễn Hue^.'s troops took the Gián Khẩu post at 90km from Thăng Long. In the night of January 28th 1789, they forced the Hà Hồi post (at 20km from Thăng Long) to surrender. In the morning of January 0th, the Ngọc Hồi, Khương Thượng and Đống Đa posts fell to Nguyễn Huệ. The Manchurian general Sầm Nghi Đống committed suicide by hanging himself. The Tây Sơn army flooded into Thăng Long Tôn Sĩ Nghị (commander-in-chief of the Manchurian troops) escaped by crossing the pontoon bridge on Sông Hồng (Red River). To avoid the Tây Sơn army's pursuit, Tôn Sĩ Nghị ordered to cut the pontoon bridge and an enormous number of invaders drowned. In the afternoon of January 30th 789, Quang Trung and his main army flooded into Thăng Long. The victory over the Manchurian aggressors was one of the most resounding feats of arms in Vietnamese history.
Ba Đình Insurrection (1886-1887) was commanded by Phạm Bành and Đinh Công Tráng against the French. Ba Đình referred to three temples in three villages Thượng Thọ, Mậu Thịnh, Mỹ Khê. The aggressors suffered many heavy losses due to that solid revolutionary base. After two unsuccessful attacks, the French besieged it so severely that the insurgents moved to Mã Cao (Thanh Hoá) and disintegrated. Phạm Bành committed suicide and Đinh Công Tráng was killed.
Bãi Sậy Insurrection was commanded by Nguyễn Thiện Thuật and Đốc Tít in response to Cần Vương Decree. The base was very solid and inaccessible to the enemy. The insurgents applied skilfully the guerilla tactics and inflicted numberless damages to the French between 885 and 1892. Later, Nguyễn Thiện Thuật had to flee in China and Đốc Tít was exiled to Algeria.
Hương Khê Insurrection was commanded by Phan Đình Phùng and Cao Thắng in response to Cần Vương Decree. Their base located in the Hương Sơn forests (Hà Tĩnh). Being able to make the rifles in the latest style, the insurgents achieved the Vũ Quang resounding victory.
Thái Nguyên Insurrection referred to the one of Vietnamese soldiers and prisoners under the command of Đội Cấn (Sergeant Can) and Lương Ngọc Quyến. After having killed the French commander, the insurgents liberated 203 prisoners and mastered the provincial capital. 623 insurgents (workers, peasants and civil servants included) had to face more than 2,000 French soldiers supported by artillery and navy

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